本网站为【成考帮】旗下网站,主要为广大考生提供报考指导服务,网站信息仅供学习交流使用,非政府官方网站,官方信息以各省市教育考试院发布为准。

全国|北京|上海|天津|重庆|河北|河南|山西|山东|江苏|浙江|湖北|湖南|陕西|安徽|福建|江西|广东|广西|四川|云南|海南|辽宁|吉林|黑龙江|贵州|甘肃|青海|内蒙古|宁夏|新疆|西藏

2019年成人高考英语书面表达如何复习

成人高考信息网 发布时间:2019-09-27 09:50:01

        2019年成人高考的招生层次分为高起专、高起本和专升本三个,无论是成人高考的高起点还是专升本,英语都是成人高考必考的科目之一。2019年成人高考英语的考试题型主要有选择题、完型填空、阅读理解和书面表达。2019年成人高考英语书面表达如何复习呢?建议考生在考试前熟背一些单词和句型。


成人高考英语书面表达如何复习


        2019年成人高考英语书面表达如何复习


    研习


  “没有规矩,不成方圆。”对于一般英语学习者而言,写出优秀的文章有赖于后天习得,但并不意味着机械背诵、生吞活剥,或者照搬照抄、人云亦云。所谓研习,需要有独立思考和个人的判断,本着“他山之石,可以攻玉”的精神,汲取文章的精华部分加以研究。研习主要侧重两个方面,包括文章章法和语言表达。文章章法指文章的行文思路、布局谋篇、结构安排、逻辑顺序。许多学习者面对一个话题,可能存在两种不同的困惑,一是下笔千言,但离题万里;二是思绪万千,却无从落笔。导致两种困惑的根源皆在于欠缺思考问

题、组织思路的恰当方式,以至于文章不得要领、章法紊乱。这就要求我们从全篇脉络角度多研习范文,之后领悟如何以演绎法行文、怎样用归纳法谋篇以及如何围绕特定话题拓展思路等等。此外,研习还要侧重于语言表达,包括遣词造句和句子、段落之间的各种衔接手段,以用在自己日后的写作中派上用场,因为英文写作皆通一理。只有善于借鉴,勤加研究,才会借他人的优势和长处,提高自己的写作水平。


  背诵


  背诵是提高写作的又一有效途径。要学好写作,首先要处理好语言输入与输出之间的关系。前者是后者的前提条件。如果头脑空空如也,就根本谈不上写出像模像样的文章。只有读过大量东西,并且有意识地将其中精彩部分储存于记忆之中(commit the highlights to memory),才能保证下笔流畅、文通字顺。因此,背诵对于写作极为重要。但背诵不是机械记忆,而是有选择性的背诵,是有意义的记忆。因为机械背诵的结果要么是记忆很快就荡然无存、了无痕迹,要么是无法活学活用、付诸实践。背诵包括五个方面:重点词汇、常用套语、精彩句子、优秀段落、经典篇章。


  重点词汇


  美妙的用词及搭配皆在此列,像fall victim(受害),stand a fair chance(大有希望)这种地道的动宾搭配要勤加记忆。为了积累写作词汇,应将文中同属一个话题的用词汇总归纳,组成主题词族(topic family)。归类记忆可以使自己日后即写即用,得心应手。下文是一篇阐释爱心的优秀文章,多处用词精巧,现将文中关于爱心这一主题的词汇总结如下:


  emotional strength 情感的力量


  the noblest of human emotions 人类最高尚的情感


  no thought of gain 不计得失


  the lamp of love 爱心之灯


  help the victims of natural disasters 支援自然灾害受害者


  donate whatever they can 倾囊相助


  help their needy fellow citizens 帮助有需要的同胞


  be ready to give a helping hand 随时准备伸出援手


  When we use the word “love”,we do not simply mean an attraction to a person of the opposite sex,which is a very narrow definition of the word. Love is emotional strength,which can support us no matter how dark the world around us becomes. In fact,throughout history people of many different cultures have regarded love as the noblest of human emotions.


  As an example of the power of love,we should remember how the Chinese people of all nationalities respond to the call to help the victims of natural disasters every year. Although their incomes are still low by international standards,people all over the country do not hesitate to donate whatever they can ― be it money or goods ― to help their needy fellow citizens. Moreover,they do this with no thought of gain for themselves.


  In my opinion,the best way to show love is to help people who are more unfortunate than we are. We should always be ready to give a helping hand to those who are in trouble,no matter whether they are family members or complete strangers. In this way,we can help to make the world a better place,for the darker the shadows of sorrow become,the more brightly the lamp of love shines.


  当我们用“爱”这个词时,我们不仅仅指异性对一个人的吸引,这只是对这个词非常狭隘的解释。爱心是一种情感的力量,不论我们周围的世界多么黑暗,爱心都能支撑我们。事实上,纵观历史,不同文化背景的人都把爱看成是人类最高尚的情感。


  说到爱心的力量,我们马上就会想起每年中国各族人民是如何响应号召支援自然灾害受害者的。尽管按照国际标准他们的收入还处于低水平,全国人民毫不犹豫地倾囊相助――不管是钱还是物――帮助那些有需要的同胞。而且,他们这么做并不考虑自己的得失。


  我认为,表达爱心的最好方式是帮助比我们更加不幸的人。我们应该随时准备向有困难的人伸出援助之手,无论他们是家庭成员还是素昧平生。这样,我们就能够助一臂之力把世界变成一个更美好的地方,因为,悲伤的阴影越黑暗,爱心之灯的光芒就越闪亮。


  常用套语


  套语指流行的公式化语言,在写作中适当使用颇有必要。如在商业信函结尾,期望对方早日回复的表达方式就要遵循套语的基本模式,使表达规范得体。下面试举几个例子:


  Kindly favor us with an early reply. 请早日赐复。


  Your prompt reply will be highly appreciated. 如能及时回复,将不胜感谢。


  We look forward to hearing from you soon. 早日回复。


  We are expecting your prompt reply. 急盼回复。


  Please have the kindness to answer this letter quickly. 请早日回信。


  Kindly let us have your reply at your earliest convenience. 请在您方便时尽早赐函。


  We would appreciate it if you could respond right away. 如能即刻回复,将不胜感谢。


  当前流行应试写作模板,即套语的使用贯穿文章始终,为考生提供万能公式型的文章主架,每句表达皆由固定套语框定,考生只要背下套用句型、过渡词语,在考试中根据特定考题填充具体内容。这种应试策略使写出的文章矫揉造作,生硬刻板,虽可以让考生及格过关,但绝对得不到高分。套语的过多使用不妨可以比作大海中的救生圈,有了它,仅仅可以让不擅游泳者保全性命,却无法自在畅游,一展泳姿。一般而言,套语较为空洞,如使用过多,文章容易流于空泛,言之无物。写作宜虚实结合,形式与内容相统一。下例是一篇比较在家学习与入校读书谁优谁劣的范文,文中巧妙地使用了一些固定句式和过渡词语,不仅增强了表达效果,而且实现了形式与内容的统一。


  There are two major arguments that can be made for studying at home. First,as advances in the electronic media have brought the whole world of scholarship into the home via the Internet and educational courses on TV,the classroom is no longer the only place for acquiring knowledge. Second,it is widely held that a person studies better in the familiar surroundings of his own home and when he can arrange his own study time.


  But we must not lose sight of the fact that there are advantages to studying in the classroom,too. Being surrounded by people of roughly the same abilities and interests can be a great stimulus to acquiring knowledge,whereas studying in solitude at home is boring for many people. More importantly,there can be no substitute for a good teacher,who must not only be able to impart facts and theories,but also to appraise and encourage his students.


  Given the choice between these two methods of learning,I prefer the classroom. This is because I am the sort of person who finds it difficult to concentrate on study in the midst of household chores,and disturbances from visitors and telephone calls. The classroom environment,I feel,is the only one in which most people feel comfortable applying all their energies to the all-important task of acquiring knowledge.


  关于在家学习,我们可以提出两个主要论点。第一,由于电子媒体方面取得的进步把整个世界的知识通过互联网和电视上的教育课程带入了家庭,教室不再是惟一获取知识的场所。第二,人们普遍认为,在自己家里这样熟悉的环境中,并且能自己安排学习时间,一个人能学得更好。


  但是,我们不能忽视在教室里学习也有好处这一事实。周围都是能力相近和兴趣相投的人可能会对获取知识形成巨大的刺激,而对很多人来说孤独一人在家学习会有些枯燥乏味。更重要的是,没有什么可以替代一个好老师,他不仅能够传道授业,而且能够评估并鼓励学生。


  如果在两种学习方法中选择,我更喜欢在教室里学习,因为我是那种很难在家务琐事、客人、电话的打扰下集中注意力学习的人。我认为大多数人只有在教室里才能把全部精力放在获取知识这件十分重要的工作上。


  精彩句子


  精彩句子指文章中句式优美、蕴含哲理的句子。精彩句子的背诵有助于写作时的引用和模仿。如在阅读美国前总统约翰。肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)的就职演说(Inaugural Address)时,可以记住诸如“Ask not what your country can do for you,ask what you can do for your country. ”(不要问国家能为你做什么,而要问你能为国家做什么。)这样的传世佳句,当你写关于爱国(patriotism)主题的作文时,则可以适时引用。现仍以上面谈“爱心”的文章为例,其中值得背诵的句子为数不少。摘录如下:


  ①Love is emotional strength,which can support us no matter how dark the world around us becomes.


  爱心是情感的力量,不论我们周围的世界多么黑暗,爱心都能支撑我们。


  ②People all over the country do not hesitate to donate whatever they can ― be it money or goods ― to help their needy fellow citizens.


  全国人民毫不犹豫地倾囊相助――不管是钱还是物――帮助那些有需要的同胞。


  ③The best way to show love is to help people who are more unfortunate than we are.


  表达爱心的最好方式是帮助比我们更加不幸的人。


  ④The darker the shadows of sorrow become,the more brightly the lamp of love shines.


  悲伤的阴影越黑暗,爱心之灯的光芒就越闪亮。


  优秀段落


  阅读时,我们经常会碰到一些过目难忘的段落。这些段落或者表达流畅、文笔优美,或者逻辑缜密、结构严谨。根据表达需要,有不同的功能段落,如现象说明段、观点陈述段、原因列举段、利弊解释段、结论归纳段、趋势预测段、措施建议段等。有些优秀段落可以作为写作的功能段落加以背诵,对于我们拓展思路、规范行文大有裨益。在背诵过程中,熟练掌握各种功能段落的行文规则,自己在表达时就能驾轻就熟。下面仅举观点陈述段和措施建议段各一例。


  观点陈述段(陈述“民族文化应该成为世界文化”的观点)


  A culture of one nation may become international,which is beneficial for all mankind. Since China has opened its doors widely to the outside world,many people from different countries want to visit China. They will come to accept and love Chinese culture as a whole. In addition,Chinese culture should be shared generously with foreign people,who show great interest in it. Meanwhile,as more and more foreigners come to China,they bring aspects of their own culture to share with the Chinese people. In this way,people from various nations in the world will be able to acquire a better understanding of each other and live peacefully together.


  一个国家的文化可能成为世界文化,这对全人类都有益。由于中国已经向外界敞开了国门,许多来自不同国家的人都希望来看一看中国。他们会开始接受并喜欢整个中国文化,中国文化应该大大方方地让感兴趣的外国人分享。与此同时,随着来中国的外国人越来越多,他们也把他们自己的文化带给了中国人。这样,世界各国的人们就能够更好地相互理解、和平相处。


  措施建议段(建议“人口老龄化”的解决措施)


  The rapidity of the population's aging has made it more urgent for the adoption of countermeasures. No doubt, the key is to build a solid economic foundation. Meanwhile,importance should be attached to overall social progress by changing the backward situation in social security,welfare and service. What’s more,family care and community services should also be encouraged.


  人口老龄化的加速使采取应对措施变得更为紧迫。毫无疑问,解决问题的关键是建立稳固的经济基础。与此同时,应该重视整体的社会进步,改变社会保障、福利和服务的落后局面。除此之外,应该鼓励家庭照料和社区服务。


  经典篇章


  古往今来,英语宝库中涌现出大批经典佳作,如林肯的《葛底斯堡演说》(The Gettysburg Address),福克纳的诺贝尔奖演说(Banquet Speech),海伦。凯勒的《给我三天光明》(Three Days to See)。这些文章在文字的运用上技法高超,在思想内涵上寓意深刻,读来字字珠玑,文字优美,启迪心智,含义隽永(full of exquisite words and truth satisfying the mind,appealing to the heart)。这样的文章如不能熟读成诵,则无法融会贯通。背诵一定数量的经典名篇既有助于提高自己遣词造句的能力,也有助于加强自己表达思想的深度。下面的一篇短文是英国哲学家罗素(Bertrand Russell)自传的序言部分,题为What I Have Lived For(我的人生追求),概述了作者一生追求的三种理想,文章在语言和思想两个方面都堪称经典,值得背诵。


  What I Have Lived For


  Three passions,simple but overwhelmingly strong,have governed my life:the longing for love,the search for knowledge,and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These passions,like great winds,have blown me hither and thither,in a wayward course,over a deep ocean of anguish,reaching to the very verge of despair.


  I have sought love,first,because it brings ecstasy ― ecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it,next,because it relieves loneliness ― that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it,finally,because in the union of love I have seen,in a mystic miniature,the prefiguring vision of the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought,and though it might seem too good for human life,this is what ― at last ― I have found.


  With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of men. I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this,but not much,I have achieved.


  Love and knowledge,so far as they were possible,led upward toward the heavens. But always pity brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain reverberate in my heart. Children in famine,victims tortured by oppressors, helpless old people ― a hated burden to their sons,and the whole world of loneliness,poverty,and pain make a mockery of what human life should be. I long to alleviate the evil,but I can't,and I too suffer.


成考帮免费成考网校